that plunged the U.S. into a civil war from 1861 to 1865. The fight even erupted on the floor of the Senate when anti-slavery proponent Sen. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was beaten on the head by South Carolina Sen. Preston Brooks. The famous Dred Scott Decision in 1857 denied his request stating that no person with African blood could become a U.S. citizen. From that first miserable boatload of Africans in Jamestown, slavery spread to all the settlements, and, after the Revolutionary War, was established by laws in the states. This in turn, 40 years later, prompted South Carolina’s prominent senator John C. Calhoun to declare that slavery—far from being merely a “necessary evil”—was actually a “positive good,” because, among other things, in the years since the gin’s invention, the South had become fabulously rich, with cotton constituting some 80 percent of all U.S. exports. The Missouri Compromise passed in 1820. DeBow, J.D.B. Join now. Secessionism But that wasn’t bad enough for the Southern press, which whipped up the populace to such a pitch of fury that Lincoln became as reviled as John Brown himself. In the Civil War era, this struggle focused heavily on the institution of slavery and whether the federal government had the right to regulate or even abolish slavery within an individual state. For their part, the agrarian Southerners harbored lingering umbrage over the internal improvements policy propagated by the national government, which sought to expand and develop roads, harbors, canals, etc., but which the Southerners felt was disproportionately weighted toward Northern interests. Which of the following was a cause of the civil war that was not related to slavery A) tariff issues B) borde… Get the answers you need, now! The fugitive slave act along with the publishing of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin helped expand the support for abolishing slavery nationwide. Many Northern leaders like Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Alahji Ahmadu Bello and so on were killed in … Ask your question. 1. Into this unfortunate mix came an abolitionist fanatic named John Brown riding with his sons and gang. Any man who takes it upon himself to explain the causes of the Civil War deserves whatever grief comes his way, regardless of his good intentions. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabins was published in serial form in an anti-slavery newspaper in 1851 and in book format in 1852. Causes for the outbreak of Civil War existed in plenty and one of the most prominent among them was the prevalence of slavery in the United States during this period. All of the issues of the young nation were dividing the political parties and reshaping the established two-party system of Whigs and Democrats. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. The southern states, starting with South Carolina, began to succeed from the Union. The Dred Scott Case brought the issues of enslaved peoples' rights, freedom, and citizenship to the Supreme Court. In 1856, Charles Sumner, a 45-year-old Massachusetts senator and abolitionist, conducted a three-hour rant in the Senate chamber against the Kansas-Nebraska Act, focusing in particular on 59-year-old South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler, whom he mocked and compared to a pimp, “having taken as his mistress the harlot, Slavery.” Two days later Congressman Preston Brooks, a nephew of the demeaned South Carolinian, appeared beside Sumner’s desk in the Senate and caned him nearly to death with a gold-headed gutta-percha walking stick. “States’ rights” also became a Southern watchword for Northern (or “Yankee”) intrusion on the Southern lifestyle. Russian Civil War (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Besides denying citizenship for African-Americans, it also overturned the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which had restricted slavery in certain U.S. territories. But the U.S. Senate, by a sort of gentleman’s agreement laced with the usual bribes and threats, had remained 50-50, meaning that whenever a territory was admitted as a free state, the South got to add a corresponding slave state—and vice versa. In 1857 the U.S. Supreme Court delivered its infamous Dred Scott decision, which elated Southerners and enraged Northerners. They were responsible for the Pottawatomie Massacre, in which they killed five settlers who were pro-slavery. The Civil War erupted from a variety of long-standing tensions and disagreements about American life and politics. David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso in 1846, which would ban slavery in the new lands. But in the end they, like practically everyone else, were swept along on the tide of anti-Washington, anti-abolition, anti-Northern and anti-Lincoln rhetoric. Ultimately, he left Kansas to carry his fight closer to the bosom of slavery. What were the immediate causes of the Civil War? With the addition of Minnesota (1858) and Oregon (1859) as free states, the Southerners’ greatest fears were about to be realized—complete control of the federal government by free-state, anti-slavery politicians. However, when problems arose, the weaknesses of the Articles caused the leaders of the time to come together at the Constitutional Convention and create, in secret, the U.S. Constitution. Of course there were other things, too. With all this back and forth carrying on for at least the decade preceding war, by the time hostilities broke out, few either in the North or the South had much use for the other, and minds were set. Put another way, it was well known that Lincoln was anti-slavery, but both during his campaign for office and after his election, he insisted it was never his intention to disturb slavery where it already existed. Douglas won only Missouri and a portion of New Jersey. Ask your question. States’ Rights By the 1840s, the abolitionists had decided that slavery was not simply a social evil, but a “moral wrong,” and began to agitate on that basis. As impoverished refugees from the potato famine of the 1840s and 1850s, many of these new immigrants could be hired as factory workers at low wages, thus reducing the need for enslaved people in the North. Abolitionists fought to have slavery declared illegal in those territories, as the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 had done in the territory that became the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. For over 50 years, the two territories disputed on the issue of slavery and whether // ]]> Civil War Times Editor Dana Shoaf shares the story of how Battery H of the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery found itself in the middle of the Battle of Gettysburg. Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1864. John Brown’s Raid On Harpers Ferry HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. "Part II: Population." Later, South Carolina legislators acted on this assertion and defied the federal government to overrule them, lest the state secede. In plain acknowledgement that slavery was an offensive practice, Congress in 1808 banned the importation of African slaves. What led to the outbreak of the bloodiest conflict in the history of North America? This inflammatory piece of legislation, passed with the aid of Northern politicians, imposed a tax or duty on imported goods that caused practically everything purchased in the South to rise nearly half-again in price. He is the author of "The Everything American Presidents Book" and "Colonial Life: Government. Nevertheless there were millions of slaves living in the South, and their population continued growing. All of this led to disagreements on issues such as taxes, tariffs and internal improvements as well as states rights versus federal rights. Kennedy, Joseph C.G. (Brown denied this at his trial, but evidence indicated otherwise.) With the vote split four ways, Lincoln and the Republicans swept into power in November 1860, gaining a majority of the Electoral College, but only a 40 percent plurality of the popular vote. Even though things were already near a boiling point after Lincoln was elected, South Carolina issued its "Declaration of the Causes of Secession" on December 24, 1860. To assuage Southern fury at the admission of free California, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which made Northerners personally responsible for the return of runaway slaves. The country's divisions were clear on Election Day. The South remained a predominantly agrarian economy while the North became more and more industrialized. The Compromise of 1850 was created by Henry Clay and others to deal with the balance between pro-slavery states and free states. One of these immediate causes was the monarch, Charles I, who was very unpopular in every sense of the word, for a… Slavery was interwoven into the Southern economy even though only a relatively small portion of the population actually owned slaves. Thus the cat, or at least the cat’s paw, was out of the bag. Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer by Gordon Leidner of Great American History. Since the time of the American Revolution, two camps emerged when it came to the role of government. One abolitionist in particular became famous—or infamous, depending on the point of view—for battles that caused the deaths of pro-slavery settlers in Kansas. During the decade of the 1850s, crisis seemed to pile upon crisis as levels of anger turned to rage, and rage turned to violence. A Constitutional Union party also appeared, looking for votes from moderates in the Border States. The agrarian South utilized slaves to tend its large plantations and perform other duties. The book succeeded at its goal, which was to start a wave of anti-slavery sentiment across the nation. Southern reaction initially was that his acts were those of a mad fanatic, of little consequence. Even though it failed to pass into law, the very act of presenting the measure became a cause célèbre among Southerners who viewed it as further evidence that Northerners were not only out to destroy their “peculiar institution,” but their political power as well. Our line of historical magazines includes America's Civil War, American History, Aviation History, Civil War Times, Military History, MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vietnam, Wild West and World War II. Simmering animosities between North and South signaled an American apocalypse. Not only did the tariff issue raise for the first time the frightening specter of Southern secession, but it also seemed to have marked a mazy kind of dividing line in which the South vaguely started thinking of itself as a separate entity—perhaps even a separate country. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, the then Governor of th East, did not recognize Gowon as the head of government. States’ Rights refers To the struggle between the federal government and individual states over political power. The main conflict that sparked the war was the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter in 1861. Then there was the matter of the Tariff of Abominations, which became abominable for all concerned. It wasn’t, but it was a critical ingredient in the suspicion and mistrust Southerners were beginning to feel about their Northern brethren, and by extension about the Union itself. Equally outraged Southerners sent their own settlers, and a brutish group known as Border Ruffians from slaveholding Missouri went into Kansas to make trouble for the abolitionists. History >> Civil War. The South simply did not believe him. By then national politics had become almost entirely sectional, a dangerous business, pitting North against South—and vice versa—in practically all matters, however remote. That is not to say the average Confederate soldier fought to preserve slavery or the average Union soldier went to war to end slavery. These influential journals, from Richmond to Charleston and myriad points in between, painted a sensational picture of Lincoln in words and cartoons as an arch-abolitionist—a kind of antichrist who would turn the slaves loose to rape, murder and pillage. Type or write down the relevant dates and a brief description of each of the The crisis was defused only when President Andrew Jackson sent warships into Charleston Harbor—but it also marked the first time a Southern state had threatened to secede from the Union. If we could only separate, a ‘separation a l’agreable,’ as the French say it, and not have a horrid fight for divorce.”. The immediate cause of the war was the counter coup d’etat that over threw General Aguiyi Ironsi and the taking over of the leadership of the country by Colonel Yakubu Gowon.. In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act, sponsored by frequent presidential candidate Stephen A. Douglas, overturned the Missouri Compromise and permitted settlers in the Kansas Territory to choose for themselves whether they wanted a free or slave state. Throughout the North, the caning incident triggered profound indignation that was transformed into support for a new anti-slavery political party. It is probably safe to say that the original impetus of the Civil War was set in motion when a Dutch trader offloaded a cargo of African slaves at Jamestown, Va., in 1619. More from Wes about the causes of the Civil War. The Democratic party was divided between factions in the North and South. In the election of 1856, the new Republican Party ran explorer John C. Frémont, the famed “Pathfinder,” for president, and even though he lost, the party had become a force to be reckoned with. The raid was thwarted by U.S. troops, and Brown was tried for treason But beneath this great wealth and prosperity, America seethed. It is amazing that even today, nearly 150 years after the Civil War started, there is passionate debate regarding the "cause" of the Civil War. Prior to the American Revolution, the institution of slavery in America had become firmly established as being limited to persons of African ancestry. On April 12, the Confederates opened fire with cannons. It goes a long way in explaining why only one in three Confederate soldiers were slaveholders, or came from slaveholding families. Join now. However, as years went by, the North, particularly New England, had developed cotton mills of its own—as well as leather and harness manufactories, iron and steel mills, arms and munitions factories, potteries, furniture makers, silversmiths and so forth. During the 1840-1850’s the states from the North and South were evenly divided in Congress. // < ! Jackson had vowed to send an army to force the state to stay in the Union, and Congress authorized him to raise such an army (all Southern senators walked out in protest before the vote was taken), but a compromise prevented the confrontation from occurring. Because the war resulted from the secession of seven Southern states and their formation of the Confederate States of America after Abraham Lincoln’s election as president on November 6, 1860, and his inauguration on March 4, 1861, whatever caused those states to secede is the primary cause of the Civil War. Over the years this group became stronger and by the 1820s had turned into a full-fledged movement, preaching abolition from pulpits and podiums throughout the North, publishing pamphlets and newspapers, and generally stirring up sentiments both fair and foul in the halls of Congress and elsewhere. The long-term cause was a feeling by most Southerners that the interests of the two sections of the country had drifted apart, and were no longer mutual or worthwhile. "Statistical view of the United States in 1850." In Kansas, particularly, violent clashes between proponents of the two ideologies occurred. At the same time, the conflicts surrounding Kansas and the Compromise of 1850 transformed the Whig party into the Republican party (established in 1854). Slavery In America This was because the South had become used to shipping its cotton to England and France and in return receiving boatloads of inexpensive European goods, including clothing made from its own cotton. Still others, including Abraham Lincoln, simply hoped to keep slavery from expanding. By denying slaveholders the right to extend their boundaries, Lincoln would in effect also be weakening their power in Washington, and over time this would almost inevitably have resulted in the abolition of slavery, as sooner or later the land would have worn out. Some Southern historians in the past have argued this was the root cause of the Civil War. The last one, Tennessee, did not depart until June 8, nearly a week after the first land battle had been fought at Philippi in Western Virginia. Though it was often supported throughout the social and economic classes, not every white Southerner enslaved people. Immediate causes of the civil war. The root causes of the civil war in Liberia can be traced back to the founding of the country in 1847, after the American Colonization Society had started to ship back freed slaves from the Caribbean and America to the west coast of Africa in 1820. Abraham Lincoln’s Election, Explore articles from the History Net archives about Civil War Causes. If there is a case to be made on what caused the Civil War, the Southern press and its editors would be among the first in the dock. (After the conflict began it was said that Lincoln, upon meeting Mrs. Stowe, remarked, “So you are the little lady who started this great war?”). The short term causes of the Civil War were the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and Lincoln's unwillingness to allow the South to secede. But when Northern abolitionists made a martyr of him, Southerners came to believe this was proof the North intended to wage a war of extermination against white Southerners. With a way of life steeped in age-old traditions of white supremacy and a mainly agricultural economy that depended on the labor of enslaved people, the Southern states viewed enslavement as essential to their very survival. The Northern and Southern sections of the United States developed along different lines. A visitor in the 1830s described the relentless cycle of the planters’ misallocation of spare capital: “To sell cotton to buy Negroes—to make more cotton to buy more Negroes—‘ad infinitum.’”. One of the most polarizing episodes between North and South occurred upon the 1852 publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which depicted the slave’s life as a relentless nightmare of sorrow and cruelty. Then along came Eli Whitney with his cotton gin, suddenly making it feasible to grow short-staple cotton that was fit for the great textile mills of England and France. This economic disparity also led to irreconcilable differences in societal and political views. nycolee nycolee 09/15/2016 Social Studies Middle School +5 pts. Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee, refusing to fight against other Southern states and feeling that Lincoln had exceeded his presidential authority, reversed themselves and voted in favor of session. There is the possibility that war might have been avoided, and a solution worked out, had there not been so much mistrust on the part of the South. Start studying Long Term/ Immediate Causes of the Civil War. On April 10, 1861, knowing that resupplies were on their way from the North to the federal garrison at Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, provisional Confederate forces in Charleston demanded the fort’s surrender. Catholics also maintained their solidarity, prompting cynics to suggest it was only because they owed their allegiance to the pope of Rome rather than to any state, country or ideal. Some people argued for greater rights for the states and others argued that the federal government needed to have more control. Not a single shot was fired in that exchange, but the stage was set for the bloodiest war in American history. “Because of incompatibility of temper,” a Southern woman was prompted to lament, “we have hated each other so. Uncle Tom’s Cabin President James Buchanan's administration did little to quell the tension or stop what would become known as "Secession Winter." It wasn’t their slaves they were defending, it was their homes against the specter of slaves-gone-wild. De Bow, J.D.B. Article originally published in the September 2010 issue of America’s Civil War. A steady flow of immigrants, especially from Ireland and Germany during the potato famine of the 1840s and 1850s, insured the North a ready pool of laborers, many of whom could be hired at low wages, diminishing the need to cling to the institution of slavery. This included the support of industry and encouraging homesteading while advancing educational opportunities. Expansion of government powers Thomas Jefferson knew as President he did not have the power within the Constitution to agree to buy Louisiana from the French, but he did it anyway. Abolitionist literature began showing up in the Southern mails, causing Southerners to charge the abolitionists with attempting to foment a slave rebellion, the mere notion of which remained high on most Southerners’ anxiety lists. The abolitionists came with a variety of viewpoints. Additional territories gained from the U.S.–Mexican War of 1846–1848 heightened the slavery debate. This machine was able to reduce the time it took to separate seeds from the cotton. At the same time, the increase in the number of plantations willing to move from other crops to cotton created an even greater need for enslaved people. All the resenting and seething naturally continued to spill over into politics. These were the first pangs of sectional dissension. The real issue occurred in Kansas where pro-slavery Missourians, called "Border Ruffians," began to pour into the state in an attempt to force it toward slavery. People such as William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass wanted immediate freedom for all enslaved people. Such was the Southern mindset, but the tariff nearly kicked off the war 30 years early because, as the furor rose, South Carolina’s Calhoun, who was then running for vice president of the United States, declared that states—his own state in particular—were under no obligation to obey the federal tariff law, or to collect it from ships entering its harbors. Some fought on moral grounds. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 was another issue that further increased tensions. The population of the pro-slavery states was around 9.6 million in 1850 and only about 350,000 were enslavers. This included many of the wealthiest families, a number of whom owned large plantations. Northern passions were inflamed while furious Southerners dismissed the story en masse as an outrageously skewed and unfair portrayal. Virginia’s Thomas Jefferson probably summed up the attitude of the day when he defined the South’s “peculiar institution” as a necessary evil, which he and many others believed, or at least hoped, would wither away of its own accord since it was basically wasteful and unproductive. This did not sit well with the churchgoing Southerners, who were now subjected to being called unpleasant and scandalous names by Northerners they did not even know. This caused it to become known as "Bleeding Kansas." One of the most shocking events occurred when one-quarter of the nation's army surrendered in Texas under the command of General David E. Twigg.